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The database is hosted by Kiel University
and is established by Magda Wieckowska-
Lüth, Wiebke Kirleis and Kay Schmütz,
Institute for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archaeology.

© Wieckowska-Lüth/Kirleis/Schmütz 2020

Pithomyces chartarumType: No information

Category: Fungi

Taxonomical identification: Pithomyces chartarum

First publication: Shumilovskikh, L.S., Seeliger, M., Feuser, S., Novenko, E., Schlütz, F., Pint, A., Pirson, F. and Brückner, H. (2016) The harbour of Elaia: A palynological archive for human environmental interactions during the last 7500 years. Quaternary Science Reviews 149, 167–187

Other publication/s:
Caretta, G., Piontelli, E., Picco, A., Del Frate, G. (1999) Some filamentous fungi on grassland vegetation from Kenya. Mycopathologia 145 (3), 155–169
Chong, L.M., Sheridan, J.E. (1982) Mycoflora of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed in New Zealand. N. Z. J. Bot. 20 (2), 187–189
Domsch, K.H., Gams, W., Anderson, T.-H. (2007) Compendium of Soil Fungi, second ed. Academic Press, London
Ellis, M.B. (1971) Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey
Ellis, M.B. (1976) More dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey
Ellis, D., Davis, S., Alexiou, H., Handke, R., Bartley, R. (2007) Descriptions of Medical Fungi, second ed. S. Aust, Adelaid
Kuthubutheen, A.J., Webster, J. (1986) Water availability and the coprophilous fungus succession. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 86 (1), 63–76
Lacey, M.E., West, J.S. (2006) The Air Spora: a Manual for Catching and identifying Airborne Biological Particles. Springer, Boston, MA
Marasas, W.F.O., Schumann, I.H. (1972) The genus Pithomyces in South Africa. Bothalia 10 (4)
Murad, W., 2011. Late Quaternary Vegetation History and Climate Change in the Gobi Desert, South Mongolia (Dissertation/PhD-Thesis)
Pirozynski, K.A., Carter, A., Day, R.G., 1984. Fungal remains in Pleistocene ground squirrel dung from Yukon Territory, Canada. Quat. Res. 22 (3), 375–382
Tóth, B., Csosz, M., Dijksterhuis, J., Frisvad, J.C., Varga, J., 2007. Pithomyces chartarum as a pathogen of wheat. J. Plant Pathology 89 (3), 405–408
Watanabe, T. (2010) Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi: Morphologies of Cultured Fungi and Key to Species, third ed. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton

Description: The conidiospores of Pithomyces chartarum are muriform, broadly ellipsoid, 18–29 × 10–17 µm, medium to dark brown with an echinulate to verrucose surface, slightly constricted at the septa (Ellis, 1971). They are distinguished from other muriform spores in the genus by their high number of 3–4 transverse septa (Ellis, 1971, 1976; Marasas et al., 1972). The middle cells are divided each by a longitudinal septum. The apical cell is obtuse; the basal cell bear a small remain of the denticle that attached the conidiospore to the mycelium (Ellis, 1971; Ellis et al., 2007). The surface might be also smooth (Watanabe, 2010).

(Sub-) Fossil occurence: Fossil spores are reported for the late Pleistocene from lake sediments and dung (Murad, 2011; Pirozynski et al., 1984).

Co-occurence: No information

Modern occurence: P. chartarum is a widespread largely saprophytic fungus isolated from different kind of substrates but mostly from decaying leaves of a wide variety of plants (Ellis, 1971), in high priority from grasses (Ellis and Ellis, 1997; Caretta et al., 1999). The fungus prefers the warm temperate climates of the tropics and subtropics but also inhabits temperate regions (Di Menna et al., 2010; Gregory et al., 1964; Marasas and Schumann, 1972). P. chartarum is a pathogen of cereals (Chong et al., 1982; Tóth et al., 2007), but even more for ruminants. P. chartarum can be isolated from soils (Domsch et al., 2007; Watanabe, 2010), dung pellets collected from the ground (Kuthubutheen and Webster, 1986) and occurs in air traps (Lacey and West, 2006).

Palaeoenvironmental indication: No information